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In 2020, the education scenario had major changes in a short period of time. This is because, with the pandemic, the discussion about the new high school and the implementation schedule were left in the background, making room for non-classroom teaching, new technologies, online assessments and hybrid teaching.
With the possibility of returning to face-to-face classes soon, according to government forecasts, it will be necessary to think about welcoming, planning, safety and health. In addition, debates on changes to the new high school will resume to adjust the schedule and planning.
At the Eleva Teaching Platform, the pedagogical team carefully monitored all the renovations brought about by this reform, in order to rethink the curriculum and teaching material proposed in high school, with academic excellence and fully integrated. This process was carried out with the consultancy of Eduardo Deschamps, member and former president of the National Education Council (CNE) and former Secretary of State for Education of Santa Catarina.
The Pedagogical Director of the Eleva Teaching Platform, Carolina Pavanelli, made an interview with Eduardo Deschamps about this reform and its main changes, and, throughout this article, you can read important points raised by them!
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Based on educational references from several countries in the world, the New High School, described in Law nº 13.415 / 2017, indicates a different format for this school stage, with changes in the workload, in the curriculum and, mainly, in the provision of mandatory subjects and other optional ones.
The reformulation of secondary education proposes a model in which the student can leave school with technical or professional training, allowing him to have the chance to enter the job market, if he wishes. This is because, currently, more than half of adults, about 69.5 million people, have not completed this school stage, according to the PNAD Continuous 2019 – IBGE survey. And the main reasons cited for this dropout include the need to work, representing 39.1% of the causes.
In addition, the New High School also makes it mandatory to develop a life project for the student, which can be done through the accompaniment of a psychologist, at school, or even through a socio-emotional project or material, such as LIV. Within this project, young people will develop skills, related to understanding themselves and the world, respect and cooperation, and will also understand and reflect on the choices that will be made in adulthood.
Until then, all students in the same school had exactly the same high school format, with equal and mandatory subjects, and academic experience based on a fixed hourly load, destined to these subjects. As of the reform, the main changes refer to secondary education in foreign countries, such as the United States and Finland, where the student has freedom of choice between areas of knowledge. which I would like to delve into over the years.
The main objective of this new format is that young people leave school with a more technical and professional training, and can enter the job market if they wish, even if they have not entered higher education. In order to make this possible, the curriculum was adapted to a workload of 3,000 hours – over the years of this segment – divided in such a way that: 1,800 are directed to compulsory subjects, common to all, called basic general training; and 1,200 can be chosen by the student, according to their personal and professional interests, to deepen their knowledge.
Within the new timetable stipulated for high school, the training itineraries, as they are called, are the minimum 1200 hours, chosen by the students, to deepen in areas of knowledge of their interest. Mainly so that he has a greater base in that area that he wants to pursue professionally.
Therefore, if a student has more affinity with a specific area, such as human sciences, or choose a profession related to natural sciences, he can make high school a school stage that adds important knowledge for this professional training and allows his insertion in the labor market after completing their studies.
In this way, the student can explore the chosen area of knowledge and understand, also, if that is the path he / she wants to follow professionally, which will provide him / her with a greater openness to experience topics related to his / her skills and interests, reflecting on his / her professional choices. .
Not all students enter high school with the certainty of the career they wish to pursue. Many of them even change their choices during these final years, as they discover new learnings, explore other themes and acquire new experiences.
According to Deschamps: “the life project is something that must be built, at least, in the final years of elementary school. In terms of skills and competences, there is a lot to be developed with students so that they understand the paths they will take, the professional choices that can be made ”.
Therefore, it may be interesting for the student that the school proposes elective subjects in the first year of high school, so that he can gradually discover and understand what he wants, points out Deschamps.
In the Eleva Teaching Platform, there is the possibility for the school to use the material from LIV – Life Intelligence Laboratory, a material integrated with socio-emotional skills, which is seen as a type of life project, within the reform. It is also possible that, as an alternative, schools offer professional psychological counseling to students. The objective is that, being the chosen form, this project can help the student to reflect and understand his professional and personal choices.
According to the interview with Eduardo Deschamps, schools need to think of a curriculum that is aligned with the BNCC, dialoguing with competencies and skills to be developed. In addition, it also highlights the role of interdisciplinarity and its space within the content thought in the curriculum.
“You are going to have to change the mental model of work a little. Imagine that what is being put at the base as the development of competences and skills has to be worked in some space of interdisciplinarity. The ideal is that you eventually avoid leaving too much discipline in the whole stage. You can even work with the disciplinary organization, but you should know that you need to have a space for interdisciplinarity with integrating projects ”, says Deschamps.
He also points out that, with the change in the workload in basic general education, previously, 2,400 hours and, in the new high school, 1,800 hours, it will be necessary to know how to prioritize and rethink the contents of these subjects, in order to understand what is appropriate in that space and what can be deepened in each choice of formative itinerary.
As the reform of secondary education impacts the workload and its distribution among the areas of knowledge, as chosen by the students, this will also have an impact on ENEM and the way it is applied.
Regarding the ‘’ new ENEM ’’, Deschamps mentions that it is a document not yet elaborated, but already requested by INEP, aiming to guide and serve as a basis for the exam matrix in this new stage.
Before the pandemic, this new model of ENEM would be launched in 2024, “which means that all schools should turn the key to the new high school in 2022”, says Deschamps. However, with social isolation and its impact on education in 2020, these deadlines are likely to be rethought.
Deschamps also comments on the possibility that there are two types of ENEM, a series, with a test for each year of high school and an average of these grades after completion, or a general ENEM at the end of high school, related to the area of choice, which would result in two types of university vacancies. However, this is still being discussed and there is no definite definition, as Deschamps emphasizes.
Implementation and schedule
During the interview with our pedagogical director, about how the next year, 2021, should be in relation to the implementation, Eduardo Deschamps pointed out that “there are several stages. It starts as Eleva is doing, defining a curriculum, thinking about the didactic material worked and making a diagnosis of its teachers to prepare them for these changes – from work logic (development of collaborative work, project, content integration, skills development and competences), inverted classroom logic, to encourage students to work differently, outside the current classroom standard ”.
As teachers will be able to deepen the contents of the training itineraries, going beyond the basics and getting into themes that were not covered in this school stage, it may be interesting for the school to encourage the continued training of the body of teachers, in order to improve methodologies and ways of think the classroom in this new format, in which the student is much more a protagonist of his own knowledge, exploring the area that interests him.
In principle, law 13.415 / 2017, states that the schedule of changes should be set in 2019, in the first year after publication to BNCC, and the implementation process should begin in the following year, that is, in the year 2020. However , as pointed out earlier, with the pandemic and social isolation, education had a scenario completely out of plan and other issues came into discussion with greater urgency.
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